A RNN models sequential interactions through a hidden state, or memory. 1 It can take up to N inputs and produce up to N outputs. For example, an input sequence may be a sentence with the outputs being the part-of-speech tag for each word (N-to-N). An input could be a sentence, and the output a sentiment classification of the sentence (N-to-1). An input could be a single image, and the output could be a sequence of words corresponding to the description of an image (1-to-N). At each time step, an RNN calculates a new hidden state (“memory”) based on the current input and the previous hidden state. The “recurrent” stems from the facts that at each step the same parameters are used and the network performs the same calculations based on different inputs.